In this post we learn about Basic ingredients of Concrete mix, in construction, is a structural material consisting of hard, chemically inert particulate matter,
called aggregate (usually sand and gravel), which is bound together by cement and water. Concrete is
a composite material formed by the mixing of cement aggregate and water. Concrete is a very important
material in construction work. Concrete is the most durable material.


There are three types of ingredients in concrete.

1. Portland Cement

2 Water

3. Aggregates (rock and sand)

1) Portland Cement :

Cement is a binding material used in construction and civil Engineering Work. Cement is used to bind
structural members for the construction of Buildings, pavements, bridges, tunnels, roads and. Cement is a
finely ground gray powder that sets into a hard mass when mixed with water. Cement is the most important and expensive component. It was invented by Joseph Aspdin of the UK in the year 1824. He gave the name It is because of Portland cement that hard concrete is created. Fine aggregates of cement, coarse aggregates, and a certain amount of water were similar to natural Portland, England. India started producing cement in 1904. First cement. The factory was set up in Tamil Nadu Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is the most common pp.Cement is used in construction because it is abundant and cheap to produce.

Physical properties of cement :

The properties of good cement are based on:

1)Fineness of cement




5)Setting time

6)Heat of hydration Loss of ignition

7)Bulk density

8)Specific gravity (Relative density)

2) Water :

Water plays an active role in the chemical process of In Hydration and Curing Concrete. Therefore, the
water used for mixing and cleaning must be clean and free from harmful substances such as oils, acids,
salts, salts, sugars, organic matter, or other substances harmful to concrete and steel.
Water worthiness may be checked by chemical test or by checking the average cube compression test of
concrete after 28 days which shall not be less than 90% of the average strength of cubes of similar
concrete prepared using distilled water. Sea water should be avoided for curing and curing concrete
as it contains harmful salts.

The physical properties of water are based on :

cohesion/surface tension:

it exists in all three states! such as solids, liquids, and gases on Earth.

Latent heat of vaporization:

all normal latent heat of fusion is high for molecular size (freezing or melting).


It is relatively low for liquids. Density: For pure water, it gives a maximum temperature of 4°C.

Heat Capacity:

Highest of all common liquids and solids.

Chemical properties of water :

PH: Water dissolves in cations (H) and anions (OH).
Polarity: Water has +ve and -ve ends. Universal Solvent: dissolves more substances than Other
common liquids.

3) Aggregates :

Aggregates are solids that are mixed with binding materials such as cement or lime to form mortar or
concrete. About 75% of the volume of concrete is made up of aggregates And so overall properties are
greatly affected Properties of Concrete. They must meet certain requirements such as efficiency, strength, durability, and economy.

Originally, the aggregate was viewed as a solid material dispersed in
cement paste mainly for economic reasons. But its physical, thermal, and sometimes chemical
properties affect the performance of concrete. Aggregate is used not only from an economical point of
view but also for high-density stability and better durability (than cement paste only), which aggregate, is
more concrete.

Qualities of Ideal Aggregates:

not have flaky (angular) and elongated pieces It does not contain any material liable to attack the steel reinforcement in the case of reinforced concrete.

Mechanical Properties of Aggregates:

Toughness :

The toughness of aggregate is measured as the resistance of the aggregate to failure and impact is
determined as per IS: 2386 (part – IV)1963. The total result value shall not exceed 45%, the weight of the aggregate weight used for concrete used for the wearing surface, and 30%: for concrete for the wearing surface.

Hardness :

The total hardness obtained is determined in terms of aggregate abrasion value and defined as its
resistance to wear using the Los Argles machine as described in IS: 2386 (Part-IV)-1963.
The method combines testing for attrition and abrasion. A satisfactory aggregate should not exceed 30%
of the aggregate used for wearing surfaces and 50% for aggregates used for unwearing surfaces.

Crushing value of Aggregate :

The aggregate crushing value is limited to 30% for concrete used for road pavement and 45% for others.
Physical properties of aggregate.

1) Size and shape of aggregate

The size of aggregates, on the workability of fresh concrete and aggregates and cannon stage.
Aggregates fall into four categories of shape: spherical, irregular, angular, and flaky.
Angular aggregates with a thickness smaller than width and/or length are called flaky A small amount of
water and cement paste is required in aggregate for a given performance. On the other hand By hand,
the total consumption can be 10 to 20% higher compressive strength due to the development of strong
aggregate-mortar bonds. Coarse aggregate generally has a flakiness index of Limited to 25%.

2)Surface texture of Aggregate :

Surface texture is a measure of overall smoothness or roughness. The surface structure can be a glassy,
smooth, granular, coarse, crystalline Porous, or honeycomb. Overall shape and surface texture greatly
influence the strength of concrete flexural strength is more affected than compressive strength and the
effects of shape and texture are more significant in the case of high-strength concrete.

Also Read,


2. What Is Concrete & Ingredients of Concrete


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What are the minimum ingredients of a concrete mix?

What is a 1 2 3 mix for concrete?

What is the general mix of concrete?

What is a 1 2 4 mix of concrete?

What are the 7 grades of concrete?

What is M20 grade concrete?

What is the ratio of M25?

What is the ratio of M20?

What 4 materials are in concrete?

What are the 5 components of concrete?

What is standard concrete?

What is concrete slump?

What is concrete slump range?

What is the maximum mix of concrete?

What is the mix ratio for RCC?

Which sand for concrete?

What is curing of concrete?

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