Water requirement of crops mainly depend upon 3 factors

(1) Type of soil

(ii) Type of crop

(iii) Stage of growth of crop

For successful growth of a crop, proper temperature, proper moisture, proper aer- ation, proper method of irrigation, proper quality of irrigation water and proper soil with good fertility characteristics are the main requirements.

Crop Seasons and Crops In India

Major Crops in Different Crop Seasons in India

Major Crops in Different Crop Seasons in India

(i) Their are two major crop seasons in India are

(a) Rabi season (or winter season)

(b) Khariff season (or Monsoon season)

(ii) Sometimes in between the Rabi and Khar- iff crops, intermediate crops are grown, in which case, the crops may be classified as

(a) Hot weather crops (Summer crops)

(b) Khariff crops (Monsoon crops)

(c) Rabi crops (Winter crops)

(iii) Some crops will extend for a longer period, extending from one crop season to the other crop season.

(iv) Perennial crops: The crops that extend for whole year

Eg: Sugarcane, Garden crops

(v) 8-Month crops: They extend for 8 months of a year (June-February)

Eg: Tobacco, Cotton

(vi) Zald crops: Season from March to June is called zald (Generally summer season)

(vii) Plantation crops are sugarcane, tobacco. potato, jute, tea, coffee

(viii) Main Khariff crops are jowar, soyabean,rice, bajra, cotton, maize, tobacco, groundnut

(ix) Main Rabi crops are wheat, potato, puls- es, gram, mustard, barley, linseed etc.

(x) Generally khariff crops require 2-3 times more water than required by Rabi Crops.

(xi) Rabi crops extend from october to March Khariff crops extend from April to Septem- ber

(xii) Cash crops: The crops grown for commer-

cial purpose, to be sold out in market

Eg: Pulses, tobacco, cotton etc

(xiii) Food Crops: The output is used as food grains

Eg: rice, wheat, maize, jowar.

(xiv) Mixed Crops: A cash crop is sown on the same field together with a food crop

Eg: wheat and mustard

(xv) Double crop: When on the same field two crops are grown one after other in one calender year.

Improvement and Maintenance of soll fertility

Soil fertility can be improved or cured by any of the following methods, i.e..

(a) by giving sufficient rest to the field

(b) by adding different manures to the land

(c) by adopting suitable forming methods

(d) by crop rotation of the four methods, crop rotation is found to be most natural and at the same time economical.

(e) The underlying principle is that each crop requires different nutrients and in different proportions.

(f) Some of the crop groups under crop rota- tion are1. Wheat – Millet – Gram

  1. Rice – Gram
  2. Cotton – Wheat Gram
  3. Cotton – Wheat – Sugarcane
  4. Rice – Groundnut – fodder
  5. Cotton – Great Millet – Gram

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